This Access Center resource is intended to help teachers implement writing instruction that will lead to better writing outcomes for students with and without writing difficulties. We provide research-based recommendations, activities, and materials to effectively teach writing to the wide range of students educators often find in their classrooms. There are three apparent reasons why so many children and youth find writing challenging.
I am therefore creating this post to document a fairly complete list of authorities that support what I think is the better if not obvious view: University of Chicago Press,Rule 5.
Avoid this Janus-faced term.
It can often be replaced by and or or with no loss in meaning. Where it seems needed. But think of other possibilities.
Longman, at A device, or shortcut, that damages a sentence and often leads to confusion or ambiguity. West Group,Rule 1.
|Areas of Difficulty for Students With Writing Problems||This older name of the city would rarely be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts.|
|You are here||Although it is easy to assume that many English language learners ELLs will excel in math because math is a "universal language" and students may have had prior educational experience that included mathematical instruction, that assumption can lead educators astray. As I spoke with teachers and did research for this article, it became very clear that making sure that students understand math vocabulary and have ample opportunities to use it are very important.|
It is best known as the star character in two grammatical abominations: It is especially unfit for legal writing because it is inherently ambiguous.
Oxford University Press, at The word or usually includes the sense of and: No food or drink allowed. That sentence does not suggest that food or drink by itself is disallowed while food and drink together are OK. Carswell,Rule 10 at The eye tends to trip and stumble over this symbol.
It has been promulgated largely by those who either have not taken the trouble to decide, or cannot make up their minds, which of the two words they mean. University of Lavel, at A Text with Exercises Chicago: But that is really the whole point of plain English in legal writing: Judges have been vociferous in noting its ambiguity.
To me it is significant that the cases come from Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Australia — the criticism is widespread.
It is one of those inexcusable barbarisms which was sired by indolence and dammed by indifference, and has no more place in legal terminology than the vernacular of Uncle Remus has in Holy Writ.
I am unable to divine how such senseless jargon becomes current. The coiner of it certainly had no appreciation for terse and concise law English.
We venture the assertion that any man who knows the meaning of the two words and the established distinctions in their use can take a modern contract or statute, bristling with this symbol, strike out every one of them and substitute the proper one of the two words, to the great clarification of the meaning of the instrument or act.
In short, we believe the symbol to be a device for the encouragement of mental laziness even in the drafting of private contracts, but against its use in pleadings and court proceedings and in legislative acts or in either of the foregoing categories.
We believe these allegations are wholly insufficient. We pause to point out that it is impossible to tell whether plaintiff was a participant in the game or was playing in the immediate vicinity. Many courts of other jurisdictions have, in like terms, condemned the use of this symbol.
In re Bell, P 2d 22 at 29 Cal Petitioners were in effect charged with violating all the provisions of each section of the ordinance or any one provision of each section. It is true that the expression has proved convenient in contracts and other instruments where, by its intentional equivocation, it can anticipate alternative possibilities without the cumbersome itemization of each one.
It lends itself, however, as much to ambiguity as to brevity. Thus it cannot intelligibly be used to fix the occurrence of past events. A purported conclusion that either one or both of two events occurred is a mere restatement of the problem, not a decision as to which event actually occurred. The verdict in effect states that the accused is guilty or innocent of violating the constitutional provision.
In re Lewis,  Ch atper Farwell J:The Longman Academic Writing Series helps develop student writing from basic composition of sentences and paragraphs to academic essays and research papers. At each level, students are offered guidance in the complete writing process from prewriting to revision, and are provided with clear explanations, extensive practice, and consistent.
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The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the .
I remain surprised at the number of intelligent, articulate, and well-read legal professionals who still use “and/or” in legal writing. I am therefore creating this post to document a fairly complete list of authorities that support what I think is the better (if not obvious) view: never use “and/or” in legal writing (or any writing).
The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, which had been founded as Byzantium).It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued .
The ''Longman Academic Writing Series'' helps students master the academic writing skills needed to succeed in their academic careers.
The five-level series spans writing topics from composing sentences to writing research papers.