Massacre, correspondence, quarter, delegate, patriot, militia, minutemen, commander, petition 1.
Cabot led another voyage to the Americas the following year but nothing was ever heard of his ships again. This effort was rebuffed and later, as the Anglo-Spanish Wars intensified, Elizabeth I gave her blessing to further privateering raids against Spanish ports in the Americas and shipping that was returning across the Atlantic, laden with treasure from the New World.
By this time, Spain had become the dominant power in the Americas and was exploring the Pacific Ocean, Portugal had established trading posts and forts from the coasts of Africa and Brazil to China, and France had begun to settle the Saint Lawrence River area, later to become New France.
English overseas possessions InElizabeth I granted a patent to Humphrey Gilbert for discovery and overseas exploration.
Gilbert did not survive the return journey to England, and was succeeded by his half-brother, Walter Raleighwho was granted his own patent by Elizabeth in Later that year, Raleigh founded the Roanoke Colony on the coast of present-day North Carolinabut lack of supplies caused the colony to fail.
Now at peace with its main rival, English attention shifted from preying on other nations' colonial infrastructures to the business of establishing its own overseas colonies. This period, until the loss of the Thirteen Colonies after the American War of Independence towards the end of the 18th century, has subsequently been referred to by some historians as the "First British Empire".
British colonisation of the AmericasBritish AmericaThirteen Coloniesand Atlantic slave trade The Caribbean initially provided England's most important and lucrative colonies,  but not before several attempts at colonisation failed.
An attempt to establish a colony in Guiana in lasted only two years, and failed in its main objective to find gold deposits. This led to hostilities with the United Dutch Provinces —a series of Anglo-Dutch Wars —which would eventually strengthen England's position in the Americas at the expense of the Dutch.
Bermuda was settled and claimed by England as a result of the shipwreck of the Virginia Company's flagshipand in was turned over to the newly formed Somers Isles Company. The Province of Carolina was founded in The American colonies were less financially successful than those of the Caribbean, but had large areas of good agricultural land and attracted far larger numbers of English emigrants who preferred their temperate climates.
Forts and trading posts established by the HBC were frequently the subject of attacks by the French, who had established their own fur trading colony in adjacent New France.
Until the abolition of its slave trade inBritain was responsible for the transportation of 3. For the transported, harsh and unhygienic conditions on the slaving ships and poor diets meant that the average mortality rate during the Middle Passage was one in seven. Besieged by neighbouring Spanish colonists of New Granadaand afflicted by malariathe colony was abandoned two years later.
The Darien scheme was a financial disaster for Scotland—a quarter of Scottish capital  was lost in the enterprise—and ended Scottish hopes of establishing its own overseas empire.
The episode also had major political consequences, persuading the governments of both England and Scotland of the merits of a union of countries, rather than just crowns.
Rivalry with the Netherlands in Asia Fort St. George was founded at Madras in At the end of the 16th century, England and the Netherlands began to challenge Portugal's monopoly of trade with Asia, forming private joint-stock companies to finance the voyages—the English, later British, East India Company and the Dutch East India Companychartered in and respectively.
The primary aim of these companies was to tap into the lucrative spice tradean effort focused mainly on two regions; the East Indies archipelagoand an important hub in the trade network, India. There, they competed for trade supremacy with Portugal and with each other.
Hostilities ceased after the Glorious Revolution of when the Dutch William of Orange ascended the English throne, bringing peace between the Netherlands and England. A deal between the two nations left the spice trade of the East Indies archipelago to the Netherlands and the textiles industry of India to England, but textiles soon overtook spices in terms of profitability, and byin terms of sales, the British company had overtaken the Dutch.
At the concluding Treaty of UtrechtPhilip renounced his and his descendants' right to the French throne and Spain lost its empire in Europe.
Gibraltar became a critical naval base and allowed Britain to control the Atlantic entry and exit point to the Mediterranean. Spain also ceded the rights to the lucrative asiento permission to sell slaves in Spanish America to Britain.
The signing of the Treaty of Paris had important consequences for the future of the British Empire. In North America, France's future as a colonial power effectively ended with the recognition of British claims to Rupert's Land and the ceding of New France to Britain leaving a sizeable French-speaking population under British control and Louisiana to Spain.
Spain ceded Florida to Britain. Along with its victory over France in India, the Seven Years' War therefore left Britain as the world's most powerful maritime power. American Revolution During the s and early s, relations between the Thirteen Colonies and Britain became increasingly strained, primarily because of resentment of the British Parliament's attempts to govern and tax American colonists without their consent.
The American Revolution began with rejection of Parliamentary authority and moves towards self-government. In response, Britain sent troops to reimpose direct rule, leading to the outbreak of war in The following year, inthe United States declared independence.
The entry of France into the war in tipped the military balance in the Americans' favour and after a decisive defeat at Yorktown inBritain began negotiating peace terms. American independence was acknowledged at the Peace of Paris in The loss of the American colonies marked the end of the "first British Empire".
The loss of such a large portion of British Americaat the time Britain's most populous overseas possession, is seen by some historians as the event defining the transition between the "first" and "second" empires,  in which Britain shifted its attention away from the Americas to Asia, the Pacific and later Africa.The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
It originated with the overseas possessions and trading posts established by England between the late 16th and early 18th centuries. At its height, it was the largest empire in history and, for over a century, was the.
Discovery, Exploration, Colonies, & Revolution. Updated July 3, JUMP TO.. TIMELINES & MAPS / PRIMARY DOCUMENTS. DISCOVERY & EXPLORATION. NATIVE AMERICANS & COLUMBIAN EXCHANGE.
Chapter 6: The Middle Colonies Study Guide Name: _____ Date: _____ 1.
The middle colonies were known as the _____ colonies. 6. Name one way in which the Middle Colonies and the New England Colonies were different from each other. Make sure that you review all vocabulary words for Chapter 6 as part of the study guide.
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Miscegenation (/ m ɪ ˌ s ɛ dʒ ɪ ˈ n eɪ ʃ ən /) is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation, particularly mixing that is perceived to negatively impact the purity of a particular race or culture.
Anti-miscegentation is a prominent theme of white supremacy.. Though the notion that racial mixing is undesirable has arisen at.